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Comparatives and Superlatives of Adjectives

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COMPARISONS

 

COMPARATIVES, SUPERLATIVES AND EQUATIVES

 

 

A – ADJECTIVES – USAGE + BASIC RULES

 

ADJECTIVES

COMPARATIVE

SUPERLATIVE

 

USAGE

When you compare two things/ people.

When you compare three or more things/ people. To say that one person or thing in a group is unique.

SHORT

one syllable         or

two syllables ending in “y” *

–er

 –ier

Adjective +                  +  (than)

–est

–iest

The + Adjective +

LONG

Two syllables or more

 

+ Adjective + (than)

  More

  Less

most

least

The +                  + Adjective

 

 

 

EXAMPLES:

Number of syllables

ADJECTIVE

COMPARATIVE

SUPERLATIVE

one syllable *

cheap

old

cheaper than

older than

the cheapest

the oldest

two syllables ending in “y” *

happy

easy

happier than

easier than

the happiest

the easiest

two syllables or more

expensive

modern

more expensive than

less modern than

the most expensive

the least modern

*See spelling rules next page (PART B)

 

 

EXAMPLE SENTENCES:

COMPARATIVE

SUPERLATIVE

  • New York is larger than Boston.
    • Chicago is colder than Miami.
    • Bob is taller than John.
    • A Mercedes is more expensive than a Volkswagen.
  • New York is the largest city in the U.S.
    • Chicago is the coldest city I know.
    • Bob is the tallest person in my family.
    • The Rolls Royce is the most expensive car.
 

 

 

B * SPELLING RULES

1) One-syllable adjectives              simply add “er” or “est”

   

2)   C  +  V  +  C   ending               double the last consonant and add “er” or “est”

(Or ending in a short vowel followed by a single consonant)

Ex: hot = hoTTer (than), (the) hoTTest

big = biGGer (than), (the) biGGest

 

3)    “e” ending               just add “r” or “st”

Ex: nice  = niceR (than), (the) niceST

wide = wideR (than), (the) wideST

 

4) a)   C  +  Y   ending              drop the “y” and add “ier” or “iest”

Ex: lucky = luckIER (than), (the) luckIEST

healthy = healthIER (than), (the) healthIEST

 

    b)   V  +  Y    ending                just add “er” or “est”

Ex: coy* = coyER (than), (the) coyEST

gray = grayER (than), (the) grayEST

VOCABULARY: COY* = someone who pretends to be timid.

 

 

C – IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES

IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES

COMPARATIVE

SUPERLATIVE

good

better than

the best

bad

worse than

the worst

little

less than

the least

much/many

more than

the most

far

farther / further than

the farthest / furthest

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